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美国禁令与华为极限生存简析:这是重大挑战,更是重大机遇

时间:2019-10-12 18:43:32

作者:小编点击:8180

美国禁令与华为极限生存简析:这是重大挑战,更是重大机遇

2019年5月15日,美国商务部在其官方网站上发布了一则新闻https://www.commerce.gov/news/press-releases/2019/05/department-commerce-announces-addition-huawei-technologies-co-ltd国商务部的工业和安全局(BIS)把华为公司加入其Entity List(实体清单)Today, the Bureau of Industry and Security(BIS) of the U.S. Department of Commerce announced that it will be addingHuawei Technologies Co. Ltd. and its affiliates to the Bureau’s Entity List.这条新闻还说,把华为加入实体清单的举动,是因为商务部获得了相关信息,该信息为确定华为从事的活动违反美国国家安全或外交政策利益提供了合理依据。This action stems from information available tothe Department that provides a reasonable basis to conclude that Huawei isengaged in activities that are contrary to U.S. national security or foreignpolicy interest.那么具体是什么信息呢?就是司法部对华为的公开起诉书所指控的活动,包括涉嫌违反“国际紧急经济权力法”(IEEPA),向伊朗提供违禁金融服务蓄意违反IEEPA规定,以及妨碍司法公正,阻碍对涉嫌违反美国制裁行为的调查。This information includes the activities allegedin the Department of Justice’s public superseding indictment of Huawei,including alleged violations of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act(IEEPA), conspiracy to violate IEEPA by providing prohibited financial servicesto Iran, and obstruction of justice in connection with the investigation ofthose alleged violations of U.S. sanctions.很明显,美国人没有发现什么新证据,而是把美国司法部正在进行的对华为的指控内容作为了商务部的“行动依据”,而这些指控在去年加拿大逮捕孟晚舟的时候我们就已经知道了那么这个加入实体清单意味着什么呢?将美国技术出售或转让给实体清单中的公司或个人需要BIS颁发的许可证,如果出售或转让会损害美国国家安全或外交政策利益,则可能会拒绝许可证。该清单将在联邦公报中公布。Thesale or transfer of American technology to a company or person on the EntityList requires a license issued by BIS, and a license may be denied if the saleor transfer would harm U.S. national security or foreign policy interests. Thelisting will be effective when published in the Federal Register.“美国商务部工业和安全局在美国总统的支持下采取的这一行动将华为作为全球最大的电信设备制造商中国公司,列入实体清单。这将阻止外国实体以可能破坏美国国家安全或外交政策利益的方式使用美国技术,“商务部长威尔伯罗斯说。 “特朗普总统已指示商务部保护其国家安全活动。自行政当局成立以来,该部门已向实体名单增加了190人或组织,并根据1962年“贸易法”第232条对进口对国家安全的影响进行了五次调查。“This action by the Commerce Department’s Bureauof Industry and Security, with the support of the President of the UnitedStates, places Huawei, a Chinese owned company that is the largesttelecommunications equipment producer in the world, on the Entity List. Thiswill prevent American technology from being used by foreign owned entities inways that potentially undermine U.S. national security or foreign policyinterests,” said Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross. “President Trump hasdirected the Commerce Department to be vigilant in its protection of nationalsecurity activities. Since the beginning of the Administration, the Departmenthas added 190 persons or organizations to the Entity List, as well asinstituted five investigations of the effect of imports on national securityunder Section 232 of the Trade Act of 1962.”上面的内容请注意,出来讲话的美国商务部长是和中国进行贸易谈判的核心成员.同时新闻解释了这个实体清单的操作流程,那就是实体清单的增加由最终用户审查委员会(End-User Review Committee)决定,该委员会由商务部,国防部,国务院和能源部的官员组成。根据“出口管理条例”第744.11(b)条,有合理理由相信个人或组织参与或构成参与违反国家安全以及威胁美国的政策利益,可以添加到实体清单中。Additions to the Entity List are decided by theEnd-User Review Committee which is comprised of officials from the Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, StateDepartment, and Department of Energy. Under § 744.11(b) of the ExportAdministration Regulations, persons or organizations for whom there isreasonable cause to believe that they are involved, were involved, or pose asignificant risk of becoming involved in activities that are contrary to thenational security or foreign policy interests of the United States, and thoseacting on behalf of such persons, may be added to the Entity List.
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